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Sábado, 9 de Maio de 2009

Precipitation types

A rising air motion generates more or less abundant precipitation. This way, depending on the process that generates the rising air, there are three major precipitation types: convectional, orographic and cyclonic or fontal.

 

Convectional Precipitation:

When a warm air motion ascend, its temperature decreases until reaching the dew point (quantity of water vapour that atmosphere can bear to a certain temperature) leading to clouds formation, and subsequent, to precipitation, usually in the form of showers.

 

 

 

Orographic Precipitation:

When an air motion finds out an emphasis ascending area and consequently, reaches the dew point causing clouds. The precipitation occurs by normal processes already explained in previous posts.

 

 

 

Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation:

When an air motion finds a frontal surface, contact area between two air motions, it is forced to go up causing precipitation by the means described before.

The intersection zone between a frontal surface and the earth’s surface is named front. There are two types of fronts, the warm and the cold ones.

In a warm front, the warm air moves above the cold air, rising up because it is less dense. This causes continuing rain, of great duration and low intensity.

In a cold front the cold air moves under the warmer, forcing it to rise. It causes intense rain, like showers.

 

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 22:49
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Domingo, 3 de Maio de 2009

Laboratory (6)

April

Day Time Pluviometric height (mm) Water's temperature (ºC)  No. of days of stored water  pH
15 11:00 9,90 14,6 4  7,04
17 08:50 17,20 10,8  2  6,05
22 11:15 7,40 27,9  1  4,64
30 10:06 0,06 -------  2  ----

 

Joana & Mariana

 

published by Joana e Mariana às 17:03
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Segunda-feira, 6 de Abril de 2009

Laboratory (5)

  

March

Day Time Pluviometric height (mm) Water's temperature (ºC) No. of days of stored water pH
4 10:57 2,00 18,4 4  7,73 

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 22:58
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Quinta-feira, 19 de Março de 2009

Experimental Procedure

The video of the experimental procedure is already available.

 

 

 

  

As you can see, it's very simple.

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 19:46
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Domingo, 1 de Março de 2009

Laboratory (4)

 

February

Day Time Pluviometric height (mm) Water's temperature (ºC) No. of days of stored water pH
4 10:50 82,40 11,25 4  5,93
6 8:45 9,80 7,6 1  5,84
11 10:40 5,50 18,7 2  6,55

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 16:02
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Quinta-feira, 19 de Fevereiro de 2009

How is precipitation formed?

          The different proportion in which the water vapour is in the atmosphere might origin different forms of condensation: clouds, haze, rain or snow.

            But firstly, it's important to refer to the meaning of humidity.

           The relative humidity is given by the quotient between the humidity existing on a certain place and the maximum value of humidity for that same place. It's through the relative humidity we know the relative quantity of saturation.

          The absolute humidity refers to the real quantity of humidity present in the atmosphere, this is, the water vapour contained in a certain air volume. It also gives us the water quantity that can be extracted from the atmosphere in the form of precipitation.

          So that precipitation occurs, there are necessary very specific atmosphere conditions. This way, the precipitation gets formed when the air raising gets quickly cold to values inferior to the level of saturation, leading to clouds formation. If, in a cloud's interior, the condensation quickly forms, there will be favourable conditions to form liquid precipitation. In a simple way we can tell that, when tiny drops collide they origin bigger drops incapable of remain suspended in the cloud's interior. This way, with the increment of droplets' diameter, their weight also becomes bigger compelling them to fall. Then, rain, as we know it, is formed.

          In conclusion, the liquid precipitation is created when the atmosphere isn't capable of supporting the raindrops weight formed in the interior of clouds.

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 21:45
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Domingo, 1 de Fevereiro de 2009

Laboratory (3)

 

January
Day Time Pluviometric height (mm) Water's temperature (ºC) No. of days of stored water pH
7 10:56 55,00 10,7 6 4,91
14 10:46 6,50 12,8 1 6,26
15 10:06 8,60 10,6 1 5,81
16 9:05 19,60 8,23 1 5,86
21 10:46 12,60 14 3 6,65
22 9:57 8,20 12,9 1 6,83
23 9:04 2,40 15,65 1 6,62
27 11:18 21,00 16,75 3 7,11
31 9:13 5,20 13,5 2 6,69

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 13:33
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Quarta-feira, 28 de Janeiro de 2009

Procedure - Photos

There are already available photos related to the measure of the pH and respective materials.

 

To see the photos click on the link below:

 

Joana & Mariana

 

published by Joana e Mariana às 20:22
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Laboratory (2)

          Each month we start a nem Precipitation Table where we put all the data gathered for this project. Since one of the objectives of this blog is share with the community the results obtained during this experience, it's extremely important to present the data collected when we register any precipitation in Castelo Branco.

          The measure os the pH is essential to our work development since we will base all our practical work on it. This way, when it rains, we evaluate the water's pH and we took some other indispensable data.

          Below, we present the tables we've completed until today.

 

Octobre

Day Time Pluviometric height (mm) Water's temperature(ºC)

No. of days of stored water

 pH
5 15:19 3,90 ------- 3  5,96
7 10:05 2,00 -------  1  5,4
28 10:16 8,00 -------  1  6,25
30 10:16 0,06 -------  2  ----
31 12:09 8,00 -------  1  5,5

 

Novembre

          During Novembre we didn't do any measure because it didn't rain.

 

Decembre
Day Time Pluviometric height(mm) Water's temperature (ºC) No. of days of stored water pH
2 12:04 23,00 ------- 2 6,35
4 10:15 3,40 ------- 1 6,01
9 10:12 15,80 12,7 1 5,43
12 8:57 2,00 13,9 1 6,36
15 11:53 8,30 20,1 2 5,55

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 16:29
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Segunda-feira, 19 de Janeiro de 2009

Laboratory (1)

Last January 7th, after the pH measurement of the water accumulated during the Christmas Holidays, we got the lowest pH value until today.

Furthermore, it was the highest water storage until today. With 55mm of accumulated water we proceeded with three pH measurements where we got the following values:

1 - pH = 4,73

2 - pH = 5,11

3 - pH = 4,88

This way, and because the pH level is given by the average of the three values, we can say the pH water was approximately 4,9.  

 

Joana & Mariana

published by Joana e Mariana às 22:31
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.About us

We are two students from Secondary School Amato Lusitano and we have created this blog as a complement of the work that we will develop in a subject called “Área Projecto” until June. We will present a summary about the subject we will develop in a simple and (we hope) interesting way. Welcome!
Joana Amaral & Mariana Afonso

.Procedure

Our work will have a experimental component in which we will regularly measure the pH of the rain. We will also illustrate the measurements with photos and videos:
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